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100 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

BIO 101

General Biology I

2

C

BIO 191

General Biology Practical I

1

C

CHM 101

Introductory Inorganic Chemistry I

2

C

CHM 103

Introductory Physical Chemistry I

2

C

CHM 191

Introductory Chemistry Practical I

1   

C

ECO 121

Principles of Economics

2

C

MTH 101

General Mathematics I

3

C

PHY 101

Elementary Mechanics, Heat and Properties of Matter

3

C

PHY 191

Introductory Physics Laboratory I

1

C

GST 101

Use of English and Communication Skills

0

C

GST 105

History and Philosophy of Science

0

C

GST 107

The Good Study Guide

 

C

 

TOTAL

17

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

BIO 102

General Biology II

2

C

BIO 192

General Biology Practical II

1

C

CHM 102

Introductory Organic Chemistry

2

C

CHM 192

Introductory Chemistry Practical II

1

C

CIT 104

Introduction to Computer Science

2

C

ESM 102

The Nigerian Environment

2

C

ESM 112

Introductory Ecology

2

C

MTH 102

General Mathematics II

2

C

PHY 102

Electricity, Magnetism and Modern Physics

2

C

PHY 192

Introductory Physics Laboratory II

1

C

GST 102

Use of English and Communication Skills II

0

C

 

TOTAL

17

 

 

200 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

BIO 203

General Physiology I

2

C

BIO 213

Chemistry of Amino Acids and Proteins

2

C

BIO 215

General Biochemistry Laboratory I

1

C

BIO 217

General Microbiology

2

C

CHM 201

Physical Chemistry II

2

C

CHM 203

Organic Chemistry II

2

C

CHM 205

Inorganic Chemistry II

2

C

CIT 237

Programming and Algorithms

3

C

ESM 231

Introductory Toxicology

2

C

GST 201

Nigerian Peoples and Culture

0

C

GST 203

Introduction to Philosophy and Logic

0

C

 

TOTAL

18

 

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

BIO 206

Statistics for Agricultural and Biological Sciences

2

C

BIO 216

Chemistry of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic Acid

2

C

BIO 218

General Biochemistry Laboratory II

1

C

CHM 202

Analytical Chemistry I

2

C

ESM 204

Environmental Hazards and Disaster Management

3

C

ESM 212

Tropical Climatology

2

C

ESM 222

Water Resource Evaluation

2

C

ESM 236

Environmental Microbiology

2

C

GST 202

Fundamentals of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution

0

C

 

*Students are required to take one elective*

2

 

 

TOTAL

18

 

 

ELECTIVES

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

ESM 221

Ecotourism

2

E

ESM 234

Soil Resources

2

E

 
300 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

BIO 304

General Ecology

2

C

EMT 301

Principles of Natural Resources Management

2

C

EMT 307

Environmental Pollution Studies

3

C

EMT 309

Environmental Geosciences

2

C

EMT 311

Remote Sensing and Mapping Techniques

3

C

ESM 341

Introduction to Instrumentation, measurement and Field Methods in Environmental Science

2

C

GST 302

Business Creation and Innovation

2

C

 

*Students are required to take one elective*

2

 

 

TOTAL

18

 

 

 

ELECTIVES

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

ANP 201

Introductory Biotechnology

2

E

ESM 345

Applied Climatology

2

E

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

EMT 300

Environment, Ecosystem and Management

2

C

EMT 304

Hazardous Substance Management

2

C

BIO 308

Biogeography

2

C

ESM 342

Environmental Impact Assessment and Auditing

3

C

ESM 346

Environmental Planning and Management

2

C

SLM 305

Soil Chemistry, Fertility and Microbiology

3

C

 

*Students are required to take two electives*

4

 

 

TOTAL

18

 

ELECTIVES

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

ANP 314

Environment and Animal Production

2

E

ECO 292

Environmental Economics

2

E

EMT 308

Environmental Aspects of Pesticides and other Toxicants Usage

2

E

ESM 326

Oceanography

2

E

 

400 LEVEL (Environmental Management Option)
FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

EMT 401

Environmental Monitoring System and Techniques

3

C

EMT 403

Environmental Aspect of Farming System

3

C

EMT 405

Environmental Education and Awareness

2

C

EMT 409

Soil Analysis

1

C

EMT 411

Water Analysis

1

C

EMT 417

Scientific Writing and Presentation in Environmental Science

 

2

 

C

EMT 421

Rural and Urban Regional Planning

2

C

ESM 407

Geographic Information System

3

C

 

 

 

 

 

*Students are required to take one elective*

2

E

 

TOTAL

19

 

 

ELECTIVES

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

ESM 421

Elements of Land Surveying

2

E

ESM 435

Environmental Engineering Services

2

E

 

400 LEVEL (Environmental Toxicology Option)
FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

CHM 314

Environmental Chemistry

2

C

EMT 401

Environmental Monitoring System and Techniques

3

C

EMT 403

Environmental Aspects of Farming Systems

3

C

EMT 405

Environmental Education and Awareness

2

C

EMT 407

Principles of Toxicology I

3

C

EMT 409

Soil Analysis

1

C

EMT 411

Water Analysis

1

C

EMT 417

Scientific Writing and Presentation in Environmental Science

2

C

 

*Students are required to take one elective*

2

E

 

TOTAL

19

 

 
ELECTIVES

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

ESM 421

Elements of Land Surveying

2

2

ESM 435

Environmental Engineering Services

2

2

 

 

SECOND SEMESTER (Both Environmental Management and Toxicology Options)

 

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

EMT 400

SIWES Industry Supervisor’s Grading

3

C

EMT 410

Field Trip in Environmental Science

3

C

 

TOTAL

6

 

 

500 LEVEL (Environmental Management Option)

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

EHS 308

Environmental Biotechnology

3

C

EMT 501

Environmental Laws and Policies

2

C

EMT 507

Seminar

2

C

EMT 511

Ecological Disasters and Control

3

C

EMT 521

Environment Sociology

3

C

EMT 523

Environmental Health and Safety Management

3

C

 

*Students are required to take one elective*

3

E

 

TOTAL

19

 

 

ELECTIVES

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

EMT 429

Integrated Resources Management

3

E

EMT 517

Forestry and Wildlife Policy, Law and Administration

3

E

ESM 423

Hydrology and Water Resources

3

E

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

EMT 504

Waste Management

3

C

EMT 506

Human Settlement and Development

3

C

EMT 510

Biodiversity Conservation

3

C

CHM 311

Petroleum Chemistry

2

C

EMT 599

Project

4

C

 

*Students are required to take one elective*

3

E

 

TOTAL

18

 

ELECTIVES

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

EMT 520

Tourism and Recreation

3

E

EMT 522

Environment and Community Health

3

E

SLM 512

Fertilizer Technology

3

E

 

500 LEVEL (Environmental Toxicology Option)

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

CHM 406

Nuclear and Radio Chemistry

2

C

EHS 308

Environmental Biotechnology

2

C

EMT 501

Environmental Laws and Policy

2

C

EMT 503

Principles of Toxicology II

2

C

EMT 505

Principles of Analysis of Toxicants

3

C

EMT 507

Seminar

2

C

EMT 509

Structural Elucidation of Organic Pollutant

3

C

 

Elective

2

E

 

TOTAL

18

 

ELECTIVES

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

EMT 523

Environmental Health and Safety Management

3

E

EMT 511

Ecological Disasters and Control

3

E

SLM 509

Waste Management and Soil

2

E

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

CHM 306

Instrumental Methods of Analysis

2

C

CHM 413

Analytical Chemistry II

2

C

EMT 504

Waste Management

3

C

EMT 512

Petroleum and Environment

2

C

EMT 514

Miscellaneous Techniques in Environmental Analysis

 

2

 

C

EMT 599

Project

4

C

 

*Students are required to take one elective*

3

E

 

TOTAL

18

 

 
ELECTIVES

COURSE CODES

COURSE TITLES

Unit

Status

EMT 506

Human Settlement and Development

3

E

EMT 510

Biodiversity Conservation

3

E

EHS 506

Environmental Health Laws, Regulations and Policies

 

3

 

E

SLM 512

Fertilizer Technology

3

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental Management and Toxicology Courses DPP

 

 

EMT 300:       Environment, Ecosystems and Man (2 Units)

Population, community, ecosystem, environment and environmental factors. Study of communities and ecosystem, abundance, density, yield, cover, frequency.  The ecology of niche, niche, overlap competition coexistency, resource shift. Habitats: The primary terrestrial and aquatic habitats which affect man. Alteration imposed on the habitats by man. Integration of ecology and environment into development planning.  Ecological management.  Ecodevelopment and integrated development. Environmental planning principles: inter-disciplinary not multidisciplinary, holistic, comprehensive, participative coordinated, integrated and continuous planning.

 

EMT 301:       Principles of Natural Resources Management (2 Units)

Natural resources types and origin, environment, resource and development; rational use of resources and concept of sustainable development.  Management of forests, grazing, lands, soils, foods, minerals, etc.  Community resource development, population and pressure on resource utilization, administration and management of natural resource in Nigeria.  Resource economics and management.  Environmental conservation – Protection of nature and conservation of species.  Conservation of agricultural landscape.  Case studies concerned with concepts of balanced approach to natural  resources management.  Development of planning and management principles of natural resources and ecosystem subject to increasing development processes.

 

EMT 304:       Hazardous Substances Management (3 Units)

The nature, origin and classification of hazardous toxic substances; Characteristics of wastes and hazardous substance, Identification of hazardous substances.  Sources and pathways of hazardous substances. Disposal methods and technology of hazardous substance. Geological environmental factors affecting choice of disposal site; contamination of water bearing strata; soil, plants, food webs and bio-concentration.  Analysis of hazardous and toxic substances.  Regulations and law governing the sale, importation, transportation, storage  and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances.

 

ESM 341: Introduction to Instrumentation, Measurements and Field Methods In Environmental Science (2 units)

Description of instruments for measuring air quality i.e. NO, O2, CO, Relative air humidity e.t.c Noise level etc. Water, soil measuring instruments, corrosivity, resistance, PH, Conductivity, BOD e.t.c. Instrumentation and parameters for measuring  wastewater prior to discharge; potable water for safe drinking.  Ecological Sampling techniques, measurement of properties and quality of water, soil and air.

 

EMT 307:       Environmental Pollution Studies    (3 units)

Composition of air, Requirements for air quality, source of pollutants and noise. Threshold levels of pollutants, physical and Chemical changes in air resulting from domestics and industrial wastes. Mitigation and remediation methods. General description of land and water resources – with emphasis on economic aspects. Sources of pollutants. Impact of specific pollutants on ecosystems. Mitigation and remediation methods.

 

EMT 308:       Environmental Aspects of Pesticide and Other Toxicants Use    (3 Units)

Movement and absorption of pesticides in soil.   Factors affecting mobility of pesticides and other toxicants in the soil.  Soil Herbicide interaction and herbicide efficacy.  Famigant action and systematic activity.  Pesticide conversion mechanisms in the environment.  Enzymic and non-enzymic conversion, degradation of pesticides and other toxicants in soil, water, plants and in animals.  Pesticides in food chains.  Detection/determination and management of toxic wastes in the environment, sanitary fundamentals of pesticide application, safely measures in storage, dispensing, transportation and use of pesticides; disposal of pesticide containers and wastes ecological and environmental health effects.  Environmental criteria standards, regulations on pesticidal hoe.  Case studies of global disasters of misuse and abuse of pesticides.

 

EMT 309: Environmental Geosciences       (2 units)

Scope and meaning of environmental science; the concept of the earth’s surface as the home of man; atmosphere and atmospheric processes; hydrosphere and the hydrological cycle; the lithosphere and the process of sculpturing the earth’s surface; the lithosphere and the biological productivity of the earth’s surface; the earth surface in natural history; the current environmental concern and environmental hazards.

 

EMT311:        Remote Sensing and Mapping Techniques             (3 Units)

Principles of remote sensing, Image analysis and interpretation. Nigeria SAT 1.  Remote sensing applications in environmental studies. History of air photo photography, flight height, instruments for air photo interpretation.  Issues and problems in air photography in the tropics. Maps and their limitations.  Projections and their properties.  Qualities of Projections for Nigerian maps.  Base maps, Cartographic instruments, analysis of physical and human features in topographical maps.  Analysis of areas and linear properties of drainage basins.  Slope analysis; analysis of geological maps, settlement analysis, and transport pattern.

 

EMT 401:       Environmental Monitoring Systems and Techniques (3 Units)

 Definition, general principles of environmental monitoring.  Organisation of monitoring programmes for site and resource specific  strategies. Classification of monitoring techniques and use (physical, chemical, biological radioactive) global sources, sinks and transport (mass balance) of both man-made and natural atmospheric trace components, Ocean-atmosphere interactions, reversible effect of human activities on the global environment e.g. green house effect, climate change, depletion of stratosphere ozone layer, acid rain.  Air pollution meteorology, chemistry and biology.  Atmosphere dispersion models.  Elements of air pollution control.  Sampling and air monitoring techniques.  Mechanism of pollutant interaction with soil and vegetation.  General principles of biotesting, aquatic toxicity, types, bio, assays, data analysis and interpretation.

 

EMT 403:       Environmental Aspects of Farming Systems (3 Units)

Farm systems and farming systems. The relevance of the farm-system approach. Classification of farming systems. Difficulties of farming systems. Problems and peculiarities of shifting cultication. Characteristics and problems of permanent upland cultivation. Irrigation farming. Environmental and health implication of irrigation. Perrenial crop farming. Ranching. Institutional and environmental requirements of site related systems.

 

EMT 405:       Environmental Education and Awareness (2 Units)

Population and environment (responsible use). Role of educational intervention in environmental action.  Methods of dissemination of environmental information; case studies of information to various target groups. Methods of public opinion assessment.  Social theory for environmental psychology, ecological, psychology theory of participation, social response to environmental-pollution, environmental damage and compensation.

 

EMT 407:       Principles of Toxicology I (3 Units)

History of toxicology, Biochemistry cellular and molecular toxicology. Biotoxins, carcinogenesis, tertratogenesis and mutagenesis/genetic toxiology, biotransformation of toxicants.  Systematic toxicology, toxic  responses of blood, liver, kidney, respiratory systems, central nervous systems, skin, reproductive system, eye and the immune systems.

Practicals: Demonstration to topical application contract tests, systemic activity of pesticides.  Acetycholinesterases inhibition in insects in VICO and in VITRO.  Inhibition of egg hatch in nematodes and chitindeposition in insects.

Resistance tests in insects.  Probit analysis.  Effect of gamma irradiation on insect development studies.  Effect of morphogenic agents  on larval and pupa development in insects.  Autoradiographic studies.  Bioassay of resistant/susceptible strains of insects, audiovisuals.

 

EMT 409:       Soil Analysis  (1unit)

Types of laboratory chemicals, analytical instruments and principles of operation (colorimeter, flame analyzer, atomic absorption spectrophotometers, pH meter); Soil sampling and sample preparation; nitrogen and phosphorus determinations in soil; potassium analysis in soil. Evaluation of analytical data, special techniques and precautions in micronutrient analysis; features and functions of a standard soil-testing laboratory.

 

EMT 411:       Water Analysis         (1 Unit)

Sampling and analysis of water for various biological and physico-chemical water quality parameters: PH, hardness, alkalinity, chlolride, phosphate, nature, ammonia, sulphate, sulphide, sulphite, fecal bacteria, etc.  Determination of dissolved oxygen (D.O), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical (BOD) dissolved and suspended solids, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, saturation index, sodium adsorption ration, etc.,

 

EMT 417:       Scientific Writing and Presentation in Environmental Science   (3 units)

Elements of research, research design, Hypothesis formulation and testing, sampling techniques and Data sources, research proposal, thesis writing. 

 

EMT 421:       Rural and Urban Regional Planning          (3 units)

Urban growth and the rural-urban synergies; overcrowding and social disruption; the city as a source of environmental degradation; housing development; new management policies and strategies for urban liveability; human space, population and world resources. Policy and policy thrusts for rural development in Nigeria 1900 to present day.  Development needs of rural societies.  Community development and roles of NGOs.  Rural/urban migration.  Urbanization of rural societies.

 

 

 

EMT 429:       Resources Evaluation           (2 units)

Resources, Types, Resource Process, Methods of resource evaluation, geomorphological techniques in resource evaluation.

 

EMT 501:       Environmental Laws and Policies   (2 units)

Basic concept of environmental standard criteria and regulation.  Federal environmental laws organisation of environment protection.  States edict and regulation on the environment, plant and animal quarantine.  Regulations and enforcement mechanisms, violations and sanctions.  Comparative study of environmental laws in some advance countries. e.g. USA, Canada, Thiland, etc.  International Laws and conventions.

 

EMT 503:       Principles of Toxicology II (2 Units)

Sources, fate and effects of different toxicants in the environment; pesticides, metals, radiation and radioactive materials, plant and animal toxins, polyhalogenated compounds, hazardous wastes, dusts, asbestos, plastics.  Factors that influence toxicity, route of administration, chemical and biological factors.  Environmental toxicology, food additives and contaminants, atmospheric, aquatic and soil pollutants.  Clinical toxicology, cosmetics and drugs, occupational toxicology and health.  Autoradiography.  Toxicity testing.  Future of toxicology in the developing countries i.e. regulatory and legal requirements.

 

EMT 504:       Waste Management (3 Units)

Types, nature and characteristics of toxicants, sampling of air, soil, water and other ecological materials particularly using a staplex sampler at different flow rates and other modern methods.  Sample preservation and preparation techniques.  Samples collection techniques of air, soil, water, food, blood etc.  Analytical methods for toxicants.  Instrumental neutron.

Activation analysis.  Atomic absorption spectrophotometer UV/Visible spectrophotometer.  Gas chromatograph hybrid methods e.g. GC/Mass spectrometer.  Auto-analyzer chemical separation methods.  Gas analyzers.  Quality assurance of analytical data statistical treatment of data.  Interpretation of data.

 

EMT 505:       Principles of Analysis of Toxicants (3 Units)

Types and forms of wastes.  Sources of waste.  Methods of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes management technology including wastes recycling and utilization.  Institutional arrangements for waste management.  Environmental health effects of waste management.  Economics of wastes management, wastes management strategies.  Case studies.

 

EMT 506:       Human Settlement and Development (3 Units)

Human settlements, size and density. Factors influencing location, landscape designs, parks and reserves. Rural, urban land use and environmental quality. Culture and environment: patterns, health and safety. Environmental ethics. Impact of human settlement and development on the environment

Case studies: examples of significant human settlements and developments projects and their environmental impacts.

 

EMT 507:       Seminar (2 Units)

The purpose of this course is to familiarize the students with effective use of the library, preparation of project reports, papers for journal publication and journal reviews.  Students will be given essays on topics of general interest from widespread areas of environmental management.

 

EMT 509:       Structural Elucidation of Organic Pollutants

Structural elucidation of organic pollutants, basic instrumentation and techniques.  Applications of ur, ir, n, m, r, and m, s in chemical analysis and structural elucidation of organic pollutants.

 

EMT 510: Biodiversity Conservation 3 units

Loss of biological diversity and environmental pollution.  Basic ecological and evolutionary principles underpinning efforts to conserve the earth’s biodiversity.  These principles will be examined in the context of efforts to halt the rapid increase in disappearance of both plants and animals.  Some sociological and economic issues will be treated with emphasis on biological aspects of the crucial problems and case studies.

 

EMT 511:       Ecological Disasters and Control (3 Units)

Ecological consequences of mismanagement of natural resources.  Principles and practice of greebelt establishment in arid coastal areas.  Origin causes of erosion.  Erosion forecasting surface water management.  Soil hydrology.  Soil water movement.  Drainage, leaching and water disposal.  Economics and benefits of erosion control.  Mechanics of erosion.  Types and forms of erosion.  Evapo-transportation.  Erosion/food control measures, engineering and administrative measures.

 

EMT 512:       Petroleum and Environment           (2 units)

Origin and composition of crude oil, composition of refund oils;  extent, sources fate and effects of oil in the environment. Characteristic of biogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbons control of oil pollution. Oil pollution monitoring , sampling, sample containers, extraction, clean-up, identification and quantitation, oil tagging.  Use of bio-indicators in oil pollution monitoring.  Biomarkers.

 

EMT 514:       Miscellaneous Techniques in Environmental Analysis (2 Units)

Miscellaneous advanced techniques in environmental analysis X-ray methods, neutron activation and radiochemical methods, enzymatic and kinetic methods, automated and process analyzers.

 

CHM 406:      Nuclear and Radiochemistry (2 Units)

Natural radioactivity, fusion, fission, decay process, nature of radiation. Nuclear models, energetic of nuclear reaction. Principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity. Radiation Hazards.

 

CHM 413:      Analytical Chemistry II (2 Units)

Theory of error-significance round correlation tests. Potentiometer and pH titrations. Conductometric methods, electrolytic methods, radiochemical methods. Chromatography Calorimetry.

 

EMT 517:       Forest and Wildlife Policy, Law and Administration (2 Units)

Forest, wildlife and related natural resources, policies, planning effective use of forest resources, structure of wildlife administration, problems of conserving forest and endangered species.  Nigeria law in natural resources management.  Administration and wildlife conservation for economic and recreation uses, problems of wildlife conservation in Nigeria.

 

CHM 306: Instrumental Methods of Analysis (2 Units)

Spectroscopic techniques, physicochemical optical; flame and X-ray methods. Fluorence method, magnetic resourance and electron  spin resonance. Referchemistry and interferometry . florerimentry, polarography , calorimetry.

 

EMT 521:       Environmental Sociology     (3 Units)

Impact of culture on the environment. The sacred forests (sacred groves) their original and functions including conservation values, protective role of culture (e.g. tradition including taboos) on plant and animal diversity and conservation. Effects of pollution, policy and education on the environment (e.g. Land use decree and Structural Adjustment Programme). Socioeconomic and cultural roles of conservation programme.

 

EMT 523:       Environmental Health and Safety Management   (3 Units)

Human activities and the environment; Healthy housing Unit; Food safety and hygiene; Air hygiene; Adequate and safe water supply; Waste management and disposal; Vector control; Role of environmental health professionals. Our planet, the need for environmental sustainability, Environmental legislation, Environmental Management Systems (EMS), Environmental impact assessment, Strategic environmental assessment, Environmental audit, Cost benefit analysis, Life cycle assessment, Clean technology, Environmental risk management, Sustainable development, Health and safety policies in industries and work environments, strategies and objectives. First Aid and Techniques; burns, poison stings and bites, artificial respiration etc. Accidents; classification, causes and costs; fire and firefighting. Health and safety audits as management tools. Health and safety plans. Accidents: case studies.

 

EMT 599:       Project (4 Units)

Investigation of an environmental research problem.

 

Other Courses

ANP 201: Introduction to Biotechnology (2 Units)

Nucleic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides; structure and function of DNA and RNA.  Translation into proteins, the genetic code, DNA errors and repair. Genes; Gene structure, function, replication, expression; Gene repair, mutation, recombination and cloning; Principles of DNA recombination. Molecular Tools/Techniques. Biotechnology application in animal agriculture: DNA probes, transformation of microorganisms, recombinant DNA vaccines, transformation of animals. Other biotech applications: Delivering peptides and enzymes, Targeting rumen protozoa, developing a new feed additive, Reducing Phosphorus Pollution, Pathogens in manure and the environment. Improving fibre digestion.

Practical: Extraction of DNA and RNA from animal tissues; in vitro translation, transcription, recombination and cloning

ANP 314:  Environment and Animal Production (2 Units)

Concept of the environment; components of the environment, climate change and the environment; environmental degradation and its consequences; effect of climate factors on farm animals (survival, performance, and productivity); special topics will include global warming, greenhouse gas emission, pollution, erosion, desertification, stratospheric ozone, environment control; physiological factors contributing to heat load in farm animal; global view on the environment.

 

BIO 101: General Biology I (2 units)

Characteristics of living things; cell as the basic unit of living things; cell structure, organisation, cellular organelles, tissues, organs and systems. Classification of living things, general reproduction and concept of interrelationships of organisms. Heredity and evolution; Elements of ecology (introduction) and habitats.

 

BIO 102: General Biology Ii (2 Units)

Systematic studies of diversity of life including monera, protista, plants (Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and angiosperms) and animals (Protozoa, Platyhelminthes, Annelids, Arthropods, Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals) based on similarities and differences in external morphology. Taxonomic divisions of plant and animal kingdoms. Ecological adaptations of these forms.

 

BIO 191: General Biology Practical I (1 unit)

What practical biology in biology involves. Laboratory organisation. Handling Common Laboratory equipment; Microscopic handling and maintenance; Making microscopic measurement; Procuring animal materials for practical; Killing, preserving and maintaining animal materials; Procuring plant materials;  External features of plants (differences and similarities); Preparation of temporary slides; Preparation of strains and reagents; Techniques for microbial culture and grain staining;  Setting up demonstration for physiological processes in plants; Setting up apparatus for demonstrating physiological processes in animals. Preparation required for dissection.

 

BIO 192: General Biology Laboratory II (1 Unit)

Observation and description of the morphological and diagnostic features as well as the differences among the different phyla of the plant, animal, archebacteria, eubacteria, fungi and protista kingdoms. Identification of the taxonomic hierarchy of the members of the above groups. Study of the structure and functions of their parts and habitats specifications.

BIO 203: General Physiology I (2 Units)

Physical and chemical processes in animals and plants; diffusion, osmotic pressure and osmolarity. Water potential, turgor, plasmolysis, Gibbs-Donan relationship. Gas exchange, partial pressures (Tension), Hydrogen-ion concentration (Ph). Henderson Hasselbach equation, buffers in physiology. Nutrition; photo-autotrophism, heterotrophism (essential requirements of each), Respiration and photosynthesis; RQ and QIO in relation to metabolism, photosynthesis, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.

BIO 205: Introductory Developmental Cell Biology (3 Units)

History and present trends in cell biology. Reproductive cell division, differentiation and growth of cells. Molecular basis of cell structure and development. Proteins and nucleic acids.

BIO 206:         Statistics For Agriculture And Biology (2 Units)

Use of statistical methods in Biology and Agriculture. Continuous and discrete variables, Sampling procedure. Sample size. Presentation of statistical results. Frequency distribution. Law of probability, the binomial, Poisson and normal frequency distributions. Estimations and Tests of Hypothesis. Design of simple Agricultural and Biological experiments. Analysis of variance and co-variance, simple regression and co­relation, contingency tables, some non-parametric tests. The use of statistical packages such as SPSS and Minitab in statistical analysis.

BIO 213: Chemistry of Amino Acids And Proteins (2 Units)

Structure, properties and classification of amino acids, pH, pka and buffer, peptide. Reactions of specific amino acids, separation of sequence of peptides, chemistry of proteins including their structural level and types of bonds stabilizing them, properties, functions and classifications of proteins, enzymes, vitamins and co-enzymes

BIO 215: General Biochemistry Laboratory I (I Unit)

Introduction to laboratory and laboratory equipment. Safety, housekeeping, washing and drying of glassware in the laboratory. Accuracy of measurement and transfer of liquids and solids. Introduction to photometry and colorimetry. Standard curve in absorption spectra. pH and buffer systems. Qualitative and quantitative tests for amino acids and proteins. Biuret method and estimation of proteins.

 BIO 216: Chemistry of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic Acids (2 Units)

Classification of physical properties of carbohydrates, structure of glucose, projection and perspective formular, structure of properties of other monossacharides, brief treatment of dissacharides and polyssacharides. Chemistry, classification and properties of lipids. Methods of analysis of lipids, lipoprotein, membrane and membrane structure. Chemistry of nucleic acids (Bases, Sugar and Phosphate acid). Structure and roles of RNA and DNA

BIO 217: General Microbiology (3 Units)

Historical aspects, scope of microbiology, general characteristics of microorganisms, growth and reproduction of microorganisms; sterilization and disinfection; brief survey of microbes as friends and foes. Systematic classification of bacteria fungi, viruses, etc. Microbial variation and heredity; biological and biochemical reactions of microorganisms; cycles of elements in nature; Nitrogen fixation.

BIO 218: General Biochemistry Laboratory Ii (I Unit)

General texts in concentration, Reaction of carbohydrate, thin layer of chromatographic separation of sugar. Estimation of glucose in biological fluid (blood and urine). Analysis of lipids for double bond and free fatty acids. Separation by thin layer chromatography. Separation and purification of nucleic acids. Estimation of DNA and RNA. Estimation of phosphate and titratable acidity.

BIO 304: General Ecology (2 Units)

The ecosystem approach to the study of ecology. Types of interaction. Energy flow and nutrient cycling, population structure, population dynamics: birth and death rate, life tables and longevity. Communities in ecosystem. Influence of man.

BIO 308: Biogeography (2 Units)

Distribution of world flora, floristic regions of the world and zoogeographic regions of the world, comparision of tropical and temperate flora, dispersal and colonization of land by plants and animals, island biogeography, relationships between vegetation, soil types and climate, relationships between plant distribution and world fauna

CHM 101: Introductory Inorganic Chemistry (2 units)

Hypothesis, theory and law with appropriate illustrations, Nature of matter – 3 states of matter, Atomic structure, electronic energy levels and orbital. Periodic classification of elements and its relationship to their electronic configurations, Chemical bonding, Survey of properties and trends in groups I, II, IV, VI and transition metal,

 

CHM 102: Introductory Organic Chemistry (2 units)

Simple reactions of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and acids. Petroleum chemistry, Oils and fats, hydrogenation of oils, polymer and biologically important molecule.

 

CHM 103: Introductory Physical Chemistry I (2 units)

Mole concepts and calculations based on it. Methods of expressing concentration. Chemical kinetics and equilibria and related calculations. Important application of equilibria. PH, solubility products and solubility of ionic solids. Thermo Chemistry and simple calculations based n Hess’s law. Electro Chemistry and working of various cells. Brief mention of corrosion, Chemical thermodynamics, G = H – TS.

 

CHM 191: Introductory Practical Chemistry I (1 Unit)

Practical based of CHM 101 and CHM 103: Cations and anions – identification, Acid- base titrations, Redox reactions and determinations

 

CHM 192: Introductory Practical Chemistry Ii (1 Unit)

Practical based on general chemistry CHM 101 and introductory organic chemistry I CHM 102- Determination of melting and boiling points and reaction of functional groups.

 

CHM 201: Physical Chemistry Ii (2 Units)

Kinetic theory of gases, behaviour of real gases; The laws of thermodynamic Entropy and free energy, reactions and phrase equilibrium; reaction rate laws for gases where the concentration of the reactions are the same. Mechanism and theories of unimolecular reactions.

 

CHM 202: Analytical Chemistry I (2 Units)

Theory of errors, statistical treatment of data; Theory of sampling, chemical methods of analysis including volumetric (acid base,, oxidation – reduction, precipitation and compleximetry); Physicochemical methods (Optical methods of analysis – UV/V), separation methods. pH notation and buffer solutions. Gravimetry  solubility product and its application to separation methods of metals.

 

CHM 203: Organic Chemistry II (2 Units)

Factors affecting structure and physical properties of organic compounds; Factors affecting availability of electrons, Stereo-chemistry; Energy of activation and free radical substitution reactions in alkenes. Functional group chemistry. Electrophillic and nucleophillic substitution reactions. Aromaticity. Various type of organic reactions; e.g. addition, free radical, elimination and substitution reactions.

 

CHM 205: Inorganic Chemistry II  (2 Units)

Chemistry of first row transition metals. Introduction to co-ordination Chemistry including elementary treatment of crystal field theory. Comparative Chemistry of the following elements: Ga, In, TI, (b) Ge, Sn, Pb, (c) As, Sb, Bi (d) Se, Te, Po. Elementary introduction to Organometalic Chemistry. Role of metals in biochemical Systems

 

CHM 314: Environmental Chemistry  (2 Units)

Concepts of elementary cycles. Characteristics of the atmosphere. Sources, types and effects of environmental pollution. Waste water treatment. Composition of domestic wastes. Water chemistry and analysis. Chemical and Physical instrumentation in environmental sciences.

 

CIT 104:  Introduction to Computer Science (2Units)

What is a computer?; types of computer; history of digital computer; elements of a computer: Hardware and software; How to work with a computer; Operating system; Windows Files: word processing, copying a text, saving, changes to a document, formatting, spelling checker and introduction to printing a document; Spreadsheet: entering and correcting data, using formula, numeric formats, creating charts, types of chart, power points and presentations. Networking: internet and email, reading and responding to an electronic mail message.

 

CIT 237:         Programming and Algorithms (3 Units)

The programme development process, programme design, coding, and testing principles of good programming styles; Programme verification techniques; Programme documentations and maintenance; Programme design tools, e.g. flowcharts, pseudo codes, etc.  Illustration of the various concepts with practical programming problems of manageable complexity e.g. Knight’s tour or 8-queens, life game problems, etc.  Algorithms and data structures; Divide-and-conquer algorithms; Stacks, queues, trees. A treatment of popular sorting and searching algorithms; performance analysis of algorithms.  Worst-, best-and average-case performance of the algorithms.  Recursion, Hill-climbing techniques.

 

ECO 121: Principles of Economics 2 units

Basic Concepts in Economics; Fundamental Principle of Economics; Economics and Basic Economics Problems; The Economics System; Demand and Supply; The Basis Decision-making; Demand and Supply; Price Determination, Market Equilibrium, Price Ceiling and Price Floor, Elasticity of Demand, Elasticity of supply. Theory of Consumer Behavior; Basis of Choice: Utility, Budget Constraint, Equilibrium, price and income changes. Theory of Production. Production Process and Cost Concepts. Law of Production. Theory of Firm; Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic competition and oligopoly, Market Structure Comparison.

 

ECO 292:       Environmental Economics (2 units)

Key concepts in microeconomics, applications to management of renewable and non-renewable natural resources. Cost and benefit weighed for major environmental problems including global warming, toxic wastes, water and air pollution and conservation of wilderness and biodiversity; issues of social externalities.

 

EHS 308: Environmental Biotechnology (3 units)

Concept and Definition of Biotechnology; Origin, History and Development of Biotechnology; Classification of Biotechnology; Scope of Environmental Biotechnology; Methods in Biotechnology; Concept and Definition of Methods; Methods Used in Environmental Biotechnology; Traditional and Modern Methods in Environmental Health; Application of Biotechnology to Environmental Health; Application of Biotechnology to Waste Management; Biological and Traditional Control of Pests and Diseases; Application of Biotechnology to Food Production and Preservation; Application of Biotechnology to Air and Water Pollution Control; Application of Biotechnology to Remediation of Contaminated Sites; Merits and Demerits of Biotechnology.

 

EHS 506: Environmental Health Laws, Regulations and Policies           2 units

History of Environmental Health Laws, Regulations and Policies; Nature and Sources of Laws; Morality; Judicial Institution in Nigeria; Process of Making Laws; Court Processes and Procedures; Process of Compelling Attendance of Accused Person in Court; Constitutional Rights and Safeguards of the Accused Person; Public Health Laws; Environmental/Public Health Offences; Enforcement Roles of Environmental Health Officers; Environmental Health Officers Registration Council of Nigeria; National Environmental Standard Regulations Enforcement Agency.

 

ESM 102: The Nigerian Environment (1 unit)

General description of the natural, physical features of Nigeria: Vegetation, climate and climatic changes within the geographical expression; Geographical distribution of people and natural recourses. Brief description of economic importance of these features. Exploration and exploitation of natural resources. Brief impact of these on the environment

 

ESM 112: Introductory Ecology (1 unit)

General consideration of ecosystems including influence and interaction of human beings with their environments. Similarities, differences of ecosystems. Characteristics and ecological adaptations of various forms life.

 

ESM 221:       Ecotourism (2 units)

The concept of ecotourism; ecotourism as sustainable (responsible) tourism; resources for ecotourism in Nigeria; ecotourism and the impact on the environment; planning and development of ecotourism destinations; geographical information systems as planning tool; communities and eco-destinations; ecotourism projects in Nigeria.

                                                 

ESM 231:       Introductory Toxicology (2 units)

General description of toxicology, toxicity, toxins and hazardous Chemical assay, dose – response curve, Chemical statistics and their applications. Sources, types and effects of toxins. Cancer and cancer trends in Nigeria.

 

ESM 204: Environmental Hazards and Disaster Management (3 units)

Hazard and risk management, Risk assessment of environmental hazards. Types of hazards, occurrence, impacts, prevention.  Disaster management strategies for both short term and long term.

 

ESM 212: Tropical Climatology (2 units)

Meaning and scope of climatology and tropical climatology; the nature of the atmosphere; elements of weather and climate, radiation, temperature, precipitation; tropical climate; weather and climatic hazards in the tropics; physiological comfort; climate and urban planning in the tropics; tropical disturbances; tropical agro-climatology.

 

ESM 222: Water Resource Evaluation (2 units)

Water resources; sources and distribution; approaches to water resources evaluation; qualitative and quantitative approaches; water balance approach; need for evaluation; methods of measuring rainfall; analysis and interpretation of rainfall data; evapotranspiration measurements; stream flow measurements – stage, discharge-velocity, hydrographs analysis, flow variability and recession; hydrology of reservoirs. Water quality measurement and analysis – solute, suspended, bed load and yield.

 

ESM 234: Soil Resources (2 units)

Scope and nature of soil resources; physical and chemical properties of soils; soil formation, soil profile, soil classification; progress in soil mapping in Nigeria; soil determination; methods of soil survey; laboratory determination of soil properties – particle size distribution; bulk density, total porosity, PH, organic matter content, available phosphorous.

 

ESM 236: Environmental Microbiology (2 units)

General characteristics of microorganisms in the environment Sterilization and disinfection. Structure, ecology and reproduction of selected common microorganisms. Isolation of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Antigens and antibodies. Economic importance of some microbial groups.

 

ESM 328: Biodiversity Conservation (2 Units)

Loss of biological diversity and environmental pollution.  Basic ecological and evolutionary principles underpinning efforts to conserve the earth’s biodiversity.  These principles will be examined in the context of efforts to halt the rapid increase in disappearance of both plants and animals.  Some sociological and economic issues will be treated with emphasis on biological aspects of the crucial problems and case studies.

 

ESM342: Environmental Impact Assessment and Auditing (3 Units)

Origin and Evolution of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Theory and practice of Environmental Impact Assessment, EIA legislation EIA process, Environmental Audit Process, Environmental Audit Report; (EAR) as management tools.  Environmental Policy and compliance. Environmental Governance, Institutional framework for environmental management.  Preparation of EIA report, methods of executing EIA. Selected case studies of EIA around the world.

 

ESM 345: Applied Climatology (2 units)

Application of Climate to Industry, Agriculture, Aviation, building and human settlements; weather modification and their implication; Acid rain, econoclimate, Drought, flood, climate change and human affairs.

 

ESM 407: Geographic Information System (3 Units)

Principles of GIS; GIS applications in Environmental Management, ARC Info, ARC view and other GIS packages.

 

ESM 410: Field Trip in Environmental Science (3 units)

Fundamentals of field principles and measurements including dumpsites, land fill/land reclamation, marine pollution, flood or drought, erosion site, waste management/recycling, forestry/forest conservation schemes. Field studies of manufacturing/Industrial sectors, Climatic/Meteorological Stations, rural/ urban environment as well as environmental impact assessment of projects. Studies are guided by Department / approved Facilitator. At the end of the trip, student writes and submits technical report to be graded.

 

ESM 421: Elements of Land Surveying (2 units)

Principles of surveying, measurement of distance and direction, chain surveying, compass survey, plane tabling.  Area measurements, correction of errors of closure, height and slope measurements.  Drafting of uncontoured and contoured maps, rectangular coordinators and triangulation.  Traversing with theodolites, and levelling.

 

ESM 423: Hydrology and Water Resources (3 units)

Definition and scope of hydrology; trends in hydrology; the hydrological cycle and the approaches to its study; the drainage basin as a hydrologic unit; precipitation, interception, infiltration and soil moisture evaporation and evapo-transpiration; runoff and floods; the hydraulic and mechanic of flood; runoff generation, contributing areas. Morphometry and runoff frequency: erosion by water on hill slope, sediment transport processes.

 

ESM 435 Environmental Engineering Services (2 UNITS)

The course will enable students to advance knowledge in engineering services and applicable installations, i.e. electricity, water supply, telephone services e.t.c.

 

GST 101:  Use of English and Communication Skills I

Listening enabling skills, listening and comprehending comprehension, note taking and information retrieval. Including data, figures, diagrams and charts. Listening for main idea, interpretation and critical evaluation. Effective reading. Skimming and scanning. Reading and comprehension at various speed levels. Vocabulary development in various academic contexts. Reading diverse texts in narratives and expository. Reading and comprehension passages with tables, scientific texts. Reading for interpretation and critical evaluation.

 

GST 102: Use of English and Communication Skills II (2 Units)

Writing paragraphs; Topic, sentence and coherence;Development of paragraphs; illustration; Description; cause and effect including definitions;Formal letters: essential parts and stylistic forms; complaints and requests;jobs;ordering goods; letters to government and other organisations; writing reports; reporting events, experiments, writing summaries.

 

GST 105: History and Philosophy of Science (2 units)

General description of the nature of science and basic scientific methods and theories; history of western science and science in ancient times, middle ages and the rise of modern science; an overview of African science; man and his environment and natural resources; nature, scope and technological development and inventions; great scientist of Nigerian origin.

 

GST 107:  The Good Study Guide (2 units)

Getting started, reading and note taking; other ways of studying, working with numbers. What is good writing? How to write essays. Preparing for examinations.

 

GST 201: Nigerian Peoples and Cultures (2 units)

History of traditional Nigerian peoples and culture : the pre-colonial history and the culture areas of Nigeria;  the evolution of the country as a political unit. How to analyze and understand people's cultures from a historical, sociological and anthropological angle.

 

GST 202: Fundamentals of Peace Studies & Conflict Resolution (2 Units)                   

Basic Understanding of Conflict; Definitions, Causes and Types of Conflict, Conflict Theories, Phases in Conflict, Conflict Analysis & Transformation. Dynamics of Conflict; Relationship between Perception and Conflict, Language Barriers in Conflict and Resolution, Early Warning and Early Response Mechanism, Arms Control and Demilitarization, Peace and Education. Trends in Global Issues: International, Continental and Regional Organizations in the Pursuance of World Peace, Peaceful Methods of Conflict Resolution, Coercive Means of Conflict Resolution, Gender Issues and Humanitarian Intervention.

 

GST 203: Introduction to Philosophy and Logic (2 units)

General introduction to logic; clarity of thought, expression and arguments as basis for conclusions; fundamentals of logic and critial thinking; types of discourse; nature of arguments; validity and soundness; techniques for evaluating arguments; distinction between inductive and deductive inferences; etc. Illustrations from familiar texts, including literature materials, novels, law reports and newspaper publications.

 

GST 301: Entrepreneurial Studies (2 units)

 

MTH 101: General Mathematic I (3 Units)

Elementary set theory, subsets, union, intersection, complements, Venn diagrams;  Real numbers; integers, rational and irrational numbers, mathematic I, induction real sequences and series, theory of quadratic equations, binomial theorem. Complex numbers; Algebra of complex numbers; the Argand Diagram; Re Moivre's theorem; nth roots of unity. Circular measure; trigonometric functions of angles of any magnitude, addition and factor formalae

 

MTH 102: General Mathematics II (3 Units)

Calculus: Function of a real variable, graphs, limits and idea of continuity. The derivative as limit of rate of change; Techniques of differentiation;  Extreme curve sketching;  Integration as an inverse of differentiation; Methods of integration, Definite integrals; Application to areas, volumes.

 

PHY 101: Elementary Mechanic, Heat and Properties of Matter (3 Units)

Heat and temperature, work and heat, Quantity of heat: heat capacities, latent heat; Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases; Gas laws, heat transfer; Laws of thermodynamics, isothermal and adiabatic changes, Carnot cycle;  Application to kinetic theory of gases;  Simple kinetic theory of gases, the van der Waals gas. Classification of matter into (solids, liquids and gases, forces between atoms and molecules, molecular theory of matter, Elasticity, plasticity, Hook’s Law, Young’s Shear and bulk Moduli) Crystalline and non-crystalline materials, Hydrostatics:   pressure,   buoyancy, Archimedes' principle; Hydro-dynamics-streamlines, Bernouli and continuity equations, turbulence, Reynold’s number, Viscosity, laminar flow, Poiseuille’s equation; Surface tension, adhesion, cohesion, capillary, drops and bubble

 

PHY 102: Electricity, Magnetism and Modern Physics (2 Units)

Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law, Gauss’s law, potential and capacitance, dielectrics, production and measurement of static electricity. Current: Ohm's law, resistance and resistivity, heating. Galvanometers, Voltmeters and Ammeters; D.C. circuits: sources of emf and currents, Kirchhoff’s laws; Electrochemistry; The Earth's magnetic field; Magnetic fields and induction, Faraday's and Lenz's laws; Force on a current-carrying conductor. Biot-Savart law. Flemming's right and left-hand rules, motors and generators. A.C. Theory. Atomic structure; Production and properties of X-rays; Radioactivity; Photoelectric emission.

 

PHY 191: Introductory Practical Physics I (1 Unit)

Graphs, Measurement, Error Analysis, Determination of Acceleration due to Gravity by Means of Simple Pendulum, Determination of force constant of a spiral spring, Determination of effective mass of a spiral spring and the constant, Determination of surface tension of water, Determination of specific latent heat of fusion of ice, Determination of the co-efficient of limiting static friction between two surfaces, Determination of the co-efficient of static friction on two surfaces using an inclined plane, Determination of Relative Density of kerosene using the specific Gravity Bottle, Determination of the Relative Density of a Granular substance not soluble in water using the specific gravity bottle.

 

PHY 192: Introductory Practical Physics II (1 unit)

Refraction through the glass block; Image formed by a concave mirror; Determination of the focal length of the convex mirror; Refraction through the triangular prism; Determination of the focal length of a converging lens and the refractive index of groundnut; Determination of resistance of resistors in series and in parallel in simple circuits; Determination of internal resistance of a dry cell using a potentiometer; To compare the E.M.F. of cells using potentiometer; Determine the unknown resistance of a resistor using Wheatstone Bridge; To determine the relationship between current through a Tungsten and a potential applied across it.

 

SLM 305. Introductory Soil Chemistry, Fertility and Microbiology: (3 Units)

Soil phases; availability of soil nutrients, cation exchange capacity and base saturation; soilacidity and liming; nutrient movement in soils; nutrient uptake mechanisms; chemistry, status and availability of essential nutrients in soils. Microorganisms in soil-kinds, number and activities; role of microorganisms in plant growth; the dynamic nitrogen and phosphorus pools; organic matter-sources, transformation and functions in soil.

 

SLM 509:  Waste Management and Soil (3 Units)

Properties of agricultural, municipal and industrial wastes; exchange, sorption and precipitation cs_3' reactions in soil; soil biota; site selection. Economic considerations; decomposition of organic residues; rates of waste application; composting; recycling C and N; soluble-salt considerations; food chain accumulations of metals and health implications; environmental quality problems.

 

SLM 512:  Fertilizer Technology (3 Units)

Fertilizer terminologies; importance of fertilizers in agriculture, history of fertilizer consumption, compositions of macro and micronutrient fertilizer sources, calculation of fertilizer rates and methods of application; manufacture of fertilizers with special reference to phosphorus and potassium; chemical and physical methods of assessing fertilizer materials.